Hallux Limitus refers to a decrease in big toe joint motion and Hallux Rigidus is when there is complete loss of big toe joint movement. The early symptoms of hallux limitus consist of pain and stiffness in the joint when walking, standing, and especially squatting. There may be an increase in pain in colder temperatures and damp weather. There is often swelling at the joint. Over time the jamming of bone up against one another can cause new bone formation that forms a bump on the top of your joint. This bump is called a bone spur. Having a bunion removed, or a bunionectomy, is the process through which the bony bump just above the arch is detached to achieve a more conventional foot form and width. In more severe cases where the big toe has situated itself under the other toes, the foot doctor cuts a triangle-shaped portion out of the big toe's bone to reset it to its proper angle. One screw is used to hold the bone's new position. After about 6 months, the screw is usually removed. Despite the fact that this condition can happen because of pointed shoes, sometimes people are born with the tendency to form bunions. The factors that can increase the likelihood of developing calcaneal bone spurs in the plantar area are, excessive pressure on the heel and the sole of the foot, unusual gait and strenuous physical activity. Overweight or obese people and individuals who start to exercise heavily all of a sudden can develop heel spurs. Athletes and sports person, who do not warm up or stretch prior to exercising or doing any strenuous activity can also develop heel spurs. Sometimes, the pillow of fat under the heel that absorbs shock can degenerate with age, for which more pressure can be placed on the heel bone while walking and standing. Anti-inflammatory medication such as aspirin, Aleve, or Ibuprofen (but NOT Tylenol) may work for some cases. Ibuprofen cream and gels may be the best and safest (I'm not aware of an FDA study but some formulations have worked great on me), but they are often hard to obtain in the U.S. Elevation and compression are also very good at reducing inflammation. Elevation can be acheived by propping feet up on a desk or on a tall stack of pillows while in bed. Compression can be acheived by standing on the edge of a thick book for 2 minutes (if it doesn't increase the pain). The first and simple way to eliminate this pain through surgery is the Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy. In this process, two small cuts are made in the heel area. A camera is put inside the heel through these slits. This allows the doctor to observe the injured part carefully. Then he decides to cut or detach the plantar fascia ligament from the heel bones. This enables a new plantar fascia tissue to develop in the space created. The tension that resulted in heel spurs now gets completely eliminated after this surgery, thus you are relieved from the stress and pain. So what causes the Plantar Fascia to become inflamed? There are a number of various reasons for this to occur. For example, you are more likely to develop Plantar Fasciitis, if you are over 50 years old, if you're overweight, or pregnant, or if you have a job that requires a lot of walking or standing on hard surfaces. You're also at risk if you do a lot of walking or running for exercise (overuse injury). And if you have tight calf muscles (which a lot of people have) you're also more likely to develop Plantar Fasciitis. Once I discovered I had Plantar fasciitis, I learned that it is a common complaint. The plantar fascia is a fibrous tissue on the bottom of the foot that creates the arch of the foot and connects the heel bone to the toes. Plantar Fasciitis is the progressive degeneration of this tissue. The most common indicator of Plantar Fasciitis is pain in the morning when getting out of bed which decreases throughout the day. I had this kind of pain for over 7 years, but never did anything about it because the pain would always subside. Stretching, as a treatment, can also help heal the pain of a heel spur. This treatment helps lengthen the muscle in the foot, reducing the strain on the muscle. For calf stretches, sit on the floor with one leg extended forward and the other foot bent and touching the inside knee of the extended leg. Reach forward and grab the toes of the extended leg with the same arm. Pull back gently on the toes making sure the calf stays on the ground. (Otherwise you are hyper extending your knee.) Hold the position and feel the stretch through the calf. Repeat the treatment daily. When I questioned the doctor he advised me that I had what is commonly referred to as a heel spur. He asked me if I had experienced any pain there. I advised him that I had been having excruciating pain in the left foot and pretty bad pain in the right foot as well. He set me up with an appointment to see a podiatrist. When I finally got to see the foot doctor he explained to me what the cause of my pain was and we talked about some treatment options.